Of the Malta Garrison
The 31st

The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment

The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment was raised in 1702, as Colonel Villiers' Regiment of Foot. It was numbered 31st in 1751, to which Huntingdonshire was added in 1782.

In June 1847, the regiment was granted permission to bear on its Colours the word Orthes in commemoration of the distinguished conduct of the 2nd Battalion 31st Foot on 27 February 1814.

On 1 July 1881, the 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment merged with the 70th (Surrey) Regiment, to become The East Surrey Regiment.

On 14 October 1959, this amalgamated with the Queen's Royal Regiment (West Surrey), to form the Queen's Royal Surrey Regiment.

The 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment

1808 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) (Musgrave's Regiment )

1 Oct 1808 The 1st/31st arrived at Malta and replaced The 1st/44th Foot which embarked on the second Egyptian Expedition.

1 Sep Strength 8 Coys: 33 Commissioned and Warrant Officers, 53 NCOs, 601 rank and file fit for duty, 47 rank and file sick, 734 total officers and men.

1 Dec 1808 Strengths: 33 Commissioned and Warrant Officers, 76 NCOs, 632 rank and file fit for duty, 119 rank and file sick, 877 total officers and men, 1126 establishment.

1809 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

1810 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

25 June 1810 Field officers present: 3; Captains present: 7; Subalterns present: 15; Rank and File (Effective): 702; Rank and File (Establishment): 808; On passage: 20.

Aug 1810 The 1st/31st reinforced Lt Gen Sir John Stuart's Army in Sicily which prepared to oppose the crossing of the Straits of Messina by General Murat. The French invasion of Sicily started on 17 Sept 1810, but was aborted as it received little support.

The 1st/31st was replaced in Malta by The 2nd/10th Regiment of Foot.

1811 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

16 Apr 1811 A detachment of 200 men arrived from Sicily without their Flank Battalion.

July–Aug 1811 The 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment embarked from Malta.

The 1st/The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment

1816 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

18 Feb 1816 A detachment of the 1st/31st arrived from Genoa. It was quartered at Floriana Barracks.

Burials in 1816:

1817 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

1817 Strength: 967 men located at Floriana Barracks.

1818 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

1818 Strength: 960 men.

3 June 1818 The 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment embarked for England. A detachment remained in Malta till 25 November 1819.

The 1st/The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment

1856 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

8 June 1856 The 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment embarked for Malta in the Crimea.

July–Aug 1856 793 men were located at Fort Chambray Gozo. The troops were badly affected with ophthalmia.

Marriages in the Collegiate Church of St Paul's Valletta in 1856:

Baptisms in 1856:

Burials in 1856:

1857 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

1 Mar 1857 Strength 8 Coys Rank and File 774 (Effectives), 660 (Authorised Strength). Together with the 8 Coys of the 2nd/1st Regiment and 48th Foot, the 31st formed part of 3rd Brigade. The men were at Gozo. The Regiment was ordered to proceed to Gibraltar.

25 Apr 1857 The 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment embarked for Gibraltar after serving ten months in Malta.

Baptisms in 1857:

Burials in 1857:

The 1st/The 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment

1867 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

22 June 1867 The 1st/31st Regiment arrived in Malta from Templemore, Tipperary, Ireland. It embarked at Queenstown on 11 June 1867 and relieved the 1st/60th Regiment in Malta on 22 June.

In 1867, the regiment had an average strength of 352 men. There were 280 hospital admissions (821.0 admissions per 1000 of mean strength) with 11 deaths in hospital and 1 out of hospital (34.09 deaths per 1000 of mean strength).

Continued fevers prevailed to a great extent from June to September. The 1st/31st Regiment had 82 cases of continued fever with 3 deaths.

The 1st/31st Regiment was quartered at Isola Gate Barracks, Polverista and San Francesco de Paola Barracks.

1868 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

The average annual strength in 1868 was 729 men. There were 467 admissions into hospital; 7 died in hospital and 1 out of hospital.

The 31st occupied Isola Gate and Polverista Gate Barracks. From June to September, the regiment had 38 admissions for continued fevers, with 3 deaths.

1869 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

Barracks occupied by The 1st/31st Regiment in 1869
Barracks Average
Sick Soldiers
Pembroke Camp 487 11 2.25 Five Companies on detachment from 1 Jan to 22 April.
HQ and the Company at Marsamxetto marched to Pembroke Camp on 22 April, where the whole regiment was stationed until 24 September, when it moved into Lower St Elmo Barracks.
Fort Manoel 234 0 0 Head Quarters and four Companies from 1 Jan to 22 April
Marsamxetto 60 2 3.33 One Company from 1 Jan to 22 April.
The Company marched to Pembroke Camp on 22 April, where the whole regiment was stationed until 24 Sep, when it moved into Lower St Elmo Barracks.
Lower St Elmo 436 3 0.68 Whole Regiment from 24 Sep
Table 1: Barracks occupied by 1st/31st showing the average strength, number of hospital admissions from fever, and the percentage of sick soldiers during the period each barrack was occupied. The ventilation of barrack rooms was poor and blamed for much of the sickness.

Bathing parades took place three times a week during the summer months. They were discontinued on 17 October when the weather turned cold. The great majority of the troops bathed daily at their own discretion in an attempt to preserve personal cleanliness. The men of Head Quarters Coy quartered at Fort Manoel continued to bathe from 1 Jan 1869 up to the time of their removal to Pembroke Camp. The regimental surgeon had considered it advisable that bathing parades should take place twice in the week, as long as the men remained at Fort Manoel, where no baths were fitted for the men to cleanse themselves.

Regimental strength 1 January – 31 December 1869
Date Strength 1st day of month Admitted to Hospital Deaths
January 717 28 0
February 716 12 0
March 705 26 0
April 701 30 0
May 701 26 1
June 700 39 0
July 685 45 0
August 683 48 0
September 683 31 0
October 684 23 0
November 697 33 1
December 676 22 0
Table 2: Regimental Strength on the first day of each month in 1869 showing the number of admissions into the regimental hospital. TNA:WO 334/62
Plan St Elmo
Plan of Fort Upper and Lower St Elmo 1836. (TNA:MFQ 1/296)

Fort Lower St Elmo was situated at the lower end of Valletta. The fort consisted of a long building running nearly north-east and south-west. The barrack square of Lower St Elmo was only four feet above sea level. The fort was overshadowed by Fort Upper St Elmo which cut off the ventilation and was much maligned for causing sickness in the lower fort. The barrack rooms consisted of a basement with two other storeys above it. A corridor ran along the length of the upper two storeys. Each room had a large window facing the Barrack Square, but the other end was formed by the fortifications, and the side walls separating one room from those on either side had neither windows nor doors. Staff Assistant Surgeon James Hector described them as mere excavations in the casemates of the fortifications. There were four ablution rooms, one situated at each end of each corridor which contained sixty basins fixed in slate frames. These were supplied with water and wash pipes to carry away the dirty water. The drains from the latrines opened into the sea close to the barracks.

Lower St Elmo
Fort Lower St Elmo Valletta

The basement had store rooms, recreation rooms, library, school rooms, canteen, cookhouse, a sergeant's mess, and a room used as an extra guard room. On the left side of the barracks were the stables with the officer's quarters above them, further to the left lay the latrines and urinals. At this end of the Barrack Square was a building with 8 baths for washing. Nearby were the tailors and shoemakers shops. The guard rooms were small and poorly ventilated, as were the prisons in the Regimental Quarter Guard Room at St Gregory's Gate.

Married soldiers stationed at Lower St Elmo shared the Camerata with families of the Royal Artillery. The building was in the lower div of Merchant's Street Valletta, directly opposite the gate of the Garrison Hospital. It had 317 families, of which 65 families belonged to the 31st Foot. The Camerata consisted of a basement, with four storeys above it. The building formed three sides of a square, with the two side wings continuous with Maltese houses in Strada Ospidale on one side, and Strada Tramontana and Inglese on the other. It had a small square used for drying clothes. A veranda ran round the back of each storey from which the rooms opened.

Fort Manoel
Fort Manoel (TNA:MPH 1/809).

The accommodation for each family consisted of two similarly sized rooms, a small room half the breath of the front room, used as a sort of scullery, and a small room for a small water closet. One of the rooms in the basement was converted into a regimental canteen. The water supply for the Camerata was derived from tanks situated under the building. Residents had to pump water from these tanks, a pump being provided for every second landing. Food was cooked on small earthenware stoves (Kenun stoves).

Fort Manoel
Fort Manoel in Marsamxetto Harbour. The fort was designed by Chev De Tigne and built during the Grand Mastership of Don Antonio Manoel de Vilhena (1722-36).

The regimental hospital of The 31st Foot was opened at The Forrest Hospital St Julians when the regiment was at Pembroke Camp. A regimental hospital opened at the Garrison Hospital Valletta when the battalion was at Lower St Elmo Barracks. The wards in the Garrison Hospital consisted of one large ward (No 31) with two recesses, Wards 31A and 31B, which opened off ward No 31. In addition a small room between them was used as an orderlies room. The Army Hospital Corps, acting under the Purveyor's Department cooked all the meals for patients in the regimental hospitals.

Marsamxetto Barracks
Marsamxetto Barracks

The average annual strength in 1869 was 694 men. There were 363 admissions into hospital; 1 died in hospital; 1 died out of hospital; 1 death among the invalids. The ratio per 1000 strength of those admitted was 365.1 and for deaths 3.01.

The average number of sick in hospitals was: 19.50 patients in Wards 1 to 9 at Forrest Hospital, 11.62 patients in Ward 20A of the Garrison Hospital Valletta, and 14.22 patients in Wards 31 (29 beds), 31A (2 beds) and 31B (5 beds), and in the Recesses (7 beds) of the Garrison Hospital. The total admissions into hospital during the year was 372, of which 363 were NCO and men. The percentage of sick during the year was 53.60. The average number of daily sick was: Officers 0.62, NCO 18.08, Women 1.63, Children 4.40. The average number constantly sick per 1000 Strength was 25.93.

The following soldiers died in 1869:

1870 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

Barracks occupied by 1st/31st Regiment in 1870
Barracks Average Strength Fever Admissions Percentage Sick Soldiers Remarks
Lower St Elmo 528 30 5.68 Whole regiment from 1 Jan to 1 June, when a detachment of one company proceeded to Fort Manoel. On 4 Oct the regiment marched from Lower St Elmo and Fort Manoel to Fort Verdala Barracks.
Fort Manoel 65 2 3.07 One company from 1 June to 4 Oct
Fort Verdala 460 11 2.38 Whole regiment from 4 Oct to 31 Dec
Table 3: Barracks occupied by 1st/31st showing the average strength, number of hospital admissions from fever, and the percentage of sick soldiers during the period each barrack was occupied.

From 1 January to 4 October 1870, No 31 Ward in the Garrison Hospital Valletta was occupied by the 31st Regiment as their regimental hospital. The ward was ventilated by opposite windows and louvres, and was warmed by a large stove. Wards No 31A and 32B were recesses off Ward No 31.

Upper Vittoriosa Hospital (Armeria) was about half a mile from Verdala Barracks. Wards No 4 and 14 were the only wards considered suitable accommodation for the sick at this hospital. No improvements were made to Upper Vittoriosa Hospital while building was in progress on the new hospital near Zabbar Gate. The hospital was supplied with rain water stored in tanks. Food for the patients was cooked by men of the Army Hospital Corps.

1st/31st Regiment 1 January to 31 December 1870
  Strength on 1st day of month Admitted to Hospital Percentage Sick Soldiers
January 675 15 0
February 686 26 0
March 685 16 1
April 684 13 0
May 674 21 1
June 667 29 1
July 666 30 0
August 659 24 0
September 659 42 3
October 655 25 1
November 653 26 0
December 653 26 1
Table 4: Regimental Strength on the first day of the month, showing number of admissions to hospital per month, and the number of deaths recorded. TNA:WO 334/77

The average strength of women in the regiment from 1 January to 31 December 1870 was 71.29; 17 were admitted to hospital, none died. There was an average strength of 83.86 children; 34 children were admitted into hospital, 11 died. Deaths were from: 1 Diphtheria, 1 Scrofula, 3 Atrophy, 4 Infantile Convulsions, 1 Diarrhoea, and 1 Ascites. There were 675 NCOs and men in the regiment, eight died during the year. Tents were provided for the men to sleep under at Lower Fort St Elmo Barracks.

The average strength of the regiment was 668. There were 293 admissions into hospital (439/1000 mean strength), with 7 deaths in hospital, 1 out of hospital and 3 among the invalids (16.47 deaths/1000 mean strength). The average number of daily sick was 12.36; the total deaths to strength for the year was 1.19. The following soldiers died during the year:

The following died in 1870:

1871 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

The regiment had an average strength of 683 men. There were 352 admissions into hospital (515/1000 mean strength), with 7 deaths in hospital (10.24/1000 mean strength).

The 1st/31st was located at Fort Ricasoli and Fort Verdala Barracks.

1872 1st/31st (Huntingdonshire)

In 1872, the 31st had an average strength of 132 men. It had 42 admissions (318/1000 mean strength) into hospital with 2 deaths in hospital (15.15/1000 mean strength).

The men were quartered at Fort Verdala Barracks and St Clement's Bastion.

29 Feb 1872 The 1st/31st embarked for Gibraltar where it arrived on 5 March 1872.