The plan to force the Dardanelles was sanctioned on 28 Jan 1915. On 25 Apr, the British 29th Division landed on the beaches of Cape Helles at the southern tip of Gallipoli. The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) disembarked to the north of Gaba Tepe in an attempt to capture the Kilid Bahr Plateau which dominated the Dardanelles.
On 6 Aug, the British 11th Division landed at Suvla Bay to the north of ANZAC Cove in support of the assault by ANZAC troops on Sari Bair Ridge.
On 28 July 1915, the Prime Minister stated in the House of Commons that the total number of casualties among the naval and military forces engaged in the Dardanelles from the landings between April and 18 July, was 37,982. Of these, 8,099 were killed (officers 562; men 7,537), while the wounded numbered 29,883 (officers 1,375; men, 28,508). Base hospitals were set up at Lemnos, Alexandria and Malta.
On 19 Dec 1915, ANZAC Cove and Suvla were evacuated. The troops at Cape Helles were withdrawn on 9 Jan 1916 bringing the Gallipoli campaign to an end.
Medical officers who had served in the transports in the Mediterranean, in Malta and in the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force were not entitled to the 1914–15 Star. The War Office had decreed that deployment to Malta did not count as service in a theatre of war for purposes of the award of this medal. This brought protests from medical officers.
An aggrieved medical officer grumbled that it was not my choice that I was sent to Malta. On the voyage out we were attacked by submarine, and just missed by the torpedo launched at us. Later the ship in which I sailed was sunk. I went from Malta to Sicily in a hospital ship, that ship was sunk, and the third ship in which I returned from Sicily to England was also sunk. Meanwhile in Malta we were exposed to dysentery, malaria, and diphtheria.
Casualties of the Dardanelles
Pte John Thomas Taylor 1st Herefordshire Regt TF wounded at Suvla Bay 23 Aug 1915. He died of his wounds at Floriana Hospital on 2 Sept 1915, aged 19 yrs (Pieta' Military Cemet.)
Jerry Knowles Garnett 3rd East Lancashire Bde RFA (T); born 16 April 1895. He died on 6 Nov 1915 of enteric fever contracted on active service in the Dardanelles (Pieta' Military Cemet.)
John Frank Bradly 1st/3rd South Wales Borderers, wounded at Gallipoli on 28 June 1915. He died on 2 July 1915 aged 27 yrs (Pieta' Military Cemet.)
No 55957 Pte Joseph Quarry N Coy RAMC. He died at Mtarfa Hospital on 5 Sept 1915, aged 19 yrs.
Joseph Mac Gowan died at Malta on 18 Sep 1915 aged 44 yrs.
William Aberdein Malcolm died at the Blue Sisters Hospital on 3 Oct 1915 aged 54 yrs (Pieta Military Cemetery)
Lt Joseph Mac Gowan was stationed at St George's Hospital where he was seized with fever and died after a short illness. He left a widow, Margaret Arnott MacGowan, of 63 Edgemount Gardens, Langside Glasgow.
Major William Aberdeine Malcolm RAMC (TF) was the fourth son of Mr George Malcolm of Dundee. He was educated at Edinburgh, where he graduated MB and CM in 1883. After filling the appointments of house-surgeon and general superintendent of the Ayr County Hospital, he became surgeon to the North Islington and Holloway Dispensary, and successively an anaesthetist, casualty officer, registrar, and clinical assistant in the skin department at the Great Northern Central Hospital.
Maj Malcolm was medical officer to the Post Office and Honorary Medical Officer to the Charity Organization Society. He was also a Fellow of the London Medical Society, a member of the Harveian Society and president of the North London Medico-Chirurgical Society.
He joined 11th (County of London) Battalion of the London Regiment (Finsbury Rifles) as Lieutenant and Medical Officer on 21 Oct 1902, and attained the rank of Major on 21 Nov 1914. He died in Malta of enteric fever contracted at the Dardanelles. Most cases of dysentery that had reached England from the Dardanelles were in the vast majority of cases bacillary or of some undetermined type, and not amoebic caused by Entamoeba histolytica.
87 Field Ambulance
A Field Ambulance was divided into three sections: A Section, B Section and C Section. Each section was subdivided into two subdivisions a Tent Subdivision with nursing orderlies and general duty men and a Bearer Subdivision with stretcher bearers. In addition there was a transport section, one third of which was attached to each of the other sections.
87th Fld Amb was commanded by Lt Col J J O'Hagan with Capt R Stopford Taylor o/c A Section, Maj C H Lindsay o/c BSection and Maj A Hope Simpson commanding C Section. It was attached to the 29th Division.
87th Fld Amb embarked in Avonmouth, Bristol on 18 March 1915 for the Dardanelles. Its sections were distributed on the transports Dongola, Andania and Marquette, the latter also conveying the Transport Section with 70 mules, 6 riding horses, six ambulances and water carts and some general service wagons.
Dongola reached Malta on 25 March 1915 and cast anchor in the Grand Harbour. It sailed the following day and arrived off Alexandria on 29th March. 87th Fld Amb disembarked and encamped in the desert four miles outside Alexandria. On 13 April, the tents were struck and it embarked for Mudros, a small town on the island of Lemnos. It landed on the beaches at Cape Halles on 25 April 1915.
The foundation stone of Mtarfa Military Hospital was laid down on 6 Jan 1915 by Gen Sir Leslie Rundle (Aug 1909 – 12 Feb 1915).
During the Great War, the hospital was left unfinished and was not completed until the end of 1919.
In June 1920, the RAMC took possession of the new hospital which was called the Military Hospital Mtarfa Malta.
The hospital was to have six wards of 26 beds each on three floors with a central corridor running the length of each floor. The maternity block was in a wing some distance away from the main building.
The Australian Branch of the British Red Cross donated £2000 for the construction of a recreation hall for Commonwealth troops.
The building was erected in Nov 1915 by the Royal Engineers in a central site between St Andrew's and St Paul's Hospitals. It opened in Jan 1916 and could accomodate 2,000 convalescent patients.
1st/3rd East Anglian Fd Amb
On 5 Aug 1915, HMT Royal George arrived at Malta from Devonport with 3 officers and 179 men of 1st/3rd East Anglian Field Ambulance on their way to Gallipoli. The 1st/4th Northants Regiment and Cyclists were also on board.
After coaling, the Royal George left Malta on 7 Aug for Alexandria and on to Lemnos. The Field Ambulance stores and vehicles which were on HMT Royal Edward were lost when the ship was torpedoed. On 15 Aug 1915, it landed at Suvla Point in Suvla Bay with the 54th Division.
Dr Edward Leopold Rowse of Putney served in Malta from 1915 to 1918 as officer commanding Floriana and Ghajn Tuffieha Hospitals. He held the rank of Lt Col in the RAMC (T). In 1921, he was attached to the 1st London Field Ambulance.
In 1915, Frank William Wesley received a commission in the RAMC and served first at Malta. He was later attached to an ambulance convoy in France, and subsequently commanded a casualty clearing station.
William Pringle Morgan received a temporary commission in the RAMC and served at Malta and Salonica.
Victor Jenner Batteson served for three yrs as a temporary captain in the RAMC where he held the post of sanitary officer at Malta.
E A Seale was at St Paul's Hospital at Malta. This had 850 beds in huts and treated patients from Salonica with malaria and dysentery (amoebic or mixed infection). Sand-fly fever, was also common and was treated with the early administration of opium.
Dr Charles Singer held a commission in the RAMC from 1914 until late 1918. He undertook archaeological work in Malta and studied Byzantine Greek in Salonica.
Dr Oscar de JongDr Oscar de Jong (1888 – 1924) graduated MB ChB with honours in 1914 and took the Diploma in Public Health in the following year. He was offered a research fellowship in the Faculty of Public Health of Manchester University, but was unable to accept it by reason of military duties. During the war he served in Salonica and Malta.
Lt Col Hamilton Clelland Marr acted as specialist in nervous diseases for the troops at Malta from 1915 to 1916.
John McIlrath Gibson (8 Apr 1888–3 May 1963) graduated BA in 1910 and MB BCh from Queen's University Belfast in 1912. He proceeded to the MD and DPH in 1915. He joined the RAMC and became DADMS at Salonica. He was then appointed specialist sanitary officer in Malta (1915-18). Diagnosed a nursing sister serving at St George's Hospital with Kala Azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis), which she had contracted at Malta.
Arthur Dennison took a temporary commission as Lt in the RAMC on 15 Oct 1915. He was promoted to captain after a year's service. He saw service in Malta and Salonica as sanitary section staff captain. In Malta, he was admitted to a tuberculosis sanatorium, from whence he returned to England in Christmas 1920. He died at Burley, Leeds, on 6 April 1921, aged 52.
John William Heekes was attached to 46 CCS, later becoming surgeon to St Andrew's Hospital at Malta and to Queen Alexandra's Hospital at Millbank. After the war he was surgeon specialist to Belmont Hospital, where up to 1,400 German prisoners passed through his hands.
Dr Montague David Eder (1865–1936) was commissioned Temporary Lt RAMC on 1 May 1915, promoted Temp Capt in 1 May 1916, and relinquished his commission on 8 Sep 1916. He served in Malta where he was in charge of a ward for mental patients (psycho-neurological department). He was a pioneer in psychoanalysis and penned War–Shock, The Psycho-Neuroses in War: Psychology and Treatment.
Herbert John Shirley enlisted and served with the British Expeditionary Force as Lt Col, 2nd/5 Lancashire Fusiliers. In 1917 he exchanged to the RAMC, as consulting anaesthetist in the Malta Command, and had charge of the Manoel Military Hospital. At the end of the war he was SMO in a motor transport division of the RASC. He retained his military rank as brevet colonel commanding Artists' Rifles.
Dr John McAdam Hill MB CHB (22 June 1882–24 Dec 1969) graduated at Edinburgh in 1907. He served with the RAMC in France, Malta, India and Serbia. He was awarded the Order of St Sava for his work with the RAMC Serbian Mission. He demobilised in 1918.
Dr Walter A Gilmour CBE MD FRACP DPH (1886–18 Nov 1957) graduated at Glasgow in 1908. He was a pathologist to Auckland Hospital New Zealand. During WW I he served in the RAMC as a pathologist and bacteriologist in Malta, Salonica and Italy.
Baptisms in 1915
28 FebRobert Branston Bullivant born on 6 February 1915, son of Annie Louise and Army Schoolmaster William Branston Bullivant of Msida Bastion Quarters, Floriana.
Burials at the New Pietà Military Cemetery in 1915
2 MayWilliams Lily Rose aged 21 months at Ta' Braxia Cemetery Pietà.
8 May Pte Sargent William Roy Charles 3rd Australian Field Artillery Bde Ammunition Column, aged 25 yrs.
14 Aug No 1017 L/Cpl Cubbin Robert aged 23 yrs and 3 months, C Coy 9th Bn 3rd Bde AIF. Admitted Tigné Hospital from HS Gascon with GSW chest.
14 Aug No 289 Cpl Roberts Clarence Rupert aged 20 yrs, 8th Bn 2nd Inf Bde AIF. Died Valletta Military Hospital from septicaemia following a shell wound to leg.
14 Aug No 1111 Cpl Pritchard John Alfred aged 32 yrs, 4th Bn AIF. Died at sea on HS Dunluce Castle from septicaemia following GSW and fractured thigh.
15 Aug No 728 Pte Long George Ernest aged 31 yrs and 9 mths, B Coy 6th Bn AIF. Admitted Auberge de Bavière Hospital from the HS Dunluce Castle. Died of GSW spine.
15 Aug No 828 Cpl Norvell William Maxwell aged 31 yrs and 5 mths, 4th Bn 1st Inf Bde AIF. Admitted Cottonera Hospital from the HS Duncan Castle. Died intestinal haemorrhage from shrapnel wounds to back and abdomen.
15 Aug No 1450 Pte Lamond Sidney aged 22 yrs 5 mths, 1st Bn AIF. Died Floriana Military Hospital of septicaemia from wounds.
16 Aug No 454 Cpl McKern Howard Taylor aged 21 yrs 3 mths, 4th Bn 1st Inf Bde AIF. Admitted Cottonera Hospital from HS Dunluce Castle with GSW compound fracture tibia and fibula with gas gangrene.
17 Aug L/Cpl Cammock William Roland aged 29 yrs, Wellington Regt NZEF.
18 Aug No 2420 Pte Payne Robert aged 2o yrs, C Coy 3rd Bn AIF. Admitted Floriana Hospital with tetanus following GSW back and bomb wound right foot.
18 Aug No 721 2nd Lt Ogilvie Thomas Alexander aged 27 yrs 8 mths, 12th Bn 3rd Inf Bde AIF. Admitted Auberge de Bavière Hospital Valletta from HS Dunluce Castle with GSW right eye and skull.
18 Aug No1 2nd Lt Addy Edward aged 42 yrs, 2 mths, 9th Bn AIF. Admitted Mtarfa Hospital form HS Neuralia. Died of dysentery.
19 Aug Tpr Odell Samuel aged 22 yrs, 6th Australian Light Horse.
19 Aug No 450 Pte Kleeberger Theodore Charles aged 20 yrs 11 mths, 6th AIF. Died St Elmo Hospital Valletta of septicaemia following GSW to hands.
20 Aug Pte Lukey Frank William aged 22 yrs, 3rd Canterbury Regiment NZEF.
20 Aug Trp Brislane Michael Edward aged 21 yrs, Canterbury Mounted Rifles NZEF.
20 Aug No 793 Pte Maclean Thomas aged 18 yrs 5 mths, 3rd Regt 1st Australian Light Horse. Died Tignè Hospital from bomb wounds to left hand right leg and shoulder.
22 Aug No 1444 Pte Woodworth Wilfred Oldham aged 25 yrs 10 mths, 2nd Rfts 2nd Bn AIF. Admitted Valletta from HS Dunluce Castle. Died of shrapnel wound right thigh and gangrene.
22 Aug L/Cpl Radford James Edward Hebden G Coy 3rd Bn AIF, aged 19 yrs. Admitted St Elmo Hospital Valletta form HS Dunluce Castle. Died from femoral haemorrhage.
23 Aug No 1777 Cpl MacPhee Kenneth Milton aged 25 yrs 5 mths, 4th Rfts 3rd Bn AIF. Died at sea on HS Andania from multiple injuries received in action.
23 Aug No 2118 Pte Burrows Walter Reginald aged 18 yrs 2 mths, 6 Rfts 5th Bn AIF. Died at sea on HS Andania GSW skull.
25 Aug Tpr Gripp Hans Victor aged 23 years, Wellington Mounted Rifles NZEF.
25 Aug No 1993 Pte Partridge Henry James aged 29 yrs 5 mths, 5th Rfts 14th Bn AIF. Admitted Tignè Hospital from HS Somali with shrapnel wounds left thigh.
26 Aug No 169 Tpr Jury Marshall Vivian Henry aged 28 yrs 2 mths, A Sqn 2nd Light Horse AIF. Landed from HS Dunluce Castle with bomb wound pelvis.
26 Aug Pte Turton Lewis Cuthbert aged 26 yrs, Auckland Mounted Infantry NZEF. Landed Malta from HS Valdivia with GSW skull.
28 Aug No 1766 Pte Henley William George aged 19 yrs 6 mths, 4th Rfts 4th Bn AIF. Admitted St Andrews Hospital Pembroke from HS Devanha 14 July with "Nervous Debility". Transferred to St David's Military Hospital Pembroke 25 July. Readmitted St Andrews Hospital 5 August and died of enteric fever 27 August.
28 Aug No 1677 Pte Long William Hubert aged 20 yrs 3 mths, 3rd Rfts 8th Bn AIF. Landed Malta 12 Aug form HS Dunluce Castle with shattered jaw. Died of typhoid fever 28 August.
28 Aug No 415 Pte Carle John aged 23 yrs, 1st Bn AIF. Admitted 12 August Cottonera Military Hospital from HS Dunluce Castle with GSW left hip and shell wound thigh. Died of septicaemia 27 August.
28 Aug Pte Worley Robin James aged 24 yrs, Wellington Rifles NZEF. Landed in Malta from HS Valdivia with GSW left arm and chest.
28 Aug Tpr Whitton Frank Henry George aged 21 yrs, Wellington Rifles NZEF. Died of enteric fever.
28 Aug No 327 Pte Crowther Harold aged 22 yrs, 8th Bn AIF. Admitted 12 August Tignè Hospital from HS Dunluce Castle, bomb wounds to limbs.
29 Aug Pte Brown John Martin aged 30 yrs, Wellington Rifles NZEF.
30 Aug No 1659 Pte Hickson Gordon aged 22 yrs 5 mths, 3 Rfts 7th Bn AIF. Wounded 8 August, Lone Pine, bomb wound compound fracture left leg. Admitted 12 August Military Hospital Valletta from HS Dunluce Castle. Died of septicaemia.
1 Sep Tpr Neilsen John William aged 19 yrs, Otago Mounted Rifles NZEF. Died of wounds sustained in Gallipoli.
4 Sep Tpr Scott John Edward aged 26 yrs, Auckland Mounted Rifles NZEF. Died of wounds sustained in Gallipoli.
5 Sep No 1265 Pte Stewart William Peter aged 28 yrs 7 mths, 18th Bn AIF. Admitted Auberge de Bavière Hospital Valletta 31 August from HS Ascania with GSW skull.
5 Sep No 142 Pte Butcher John aged 29 yrs 6 mths, 11th Bn 3rd Inf Bde AIF. Admitted Floriana Military Hospital 31 Aug from HS Ascania with enteric fever.
6 Sep No 1368 Pte Wright Ernest Percy aged 23 yrs 9 mths, 12th Bn 3rd Inf Bde AIF. Admitted Valletta Military Hospital 12 Aug from HS Dunluce Castle with fractured leg. Died of septicaemia.
6 Sep No 1554 Pte Oliver Malcolm Bruce aged 18 yrs, 2nd Rfts 12th Bn AIF. Admitted Valletta Military Hospital 12 Aug from HS Dunluce Castle with bomb wound arm and leg. Died of pneumonia.
9 Sep Pte Bridle Fred William aged 27 yrs, 13th Canterbury Regiment NZEF.
9 Sep No 367 Pte Ellis Victor aged 24 yrs 10 mths, 5th Bn AIF. Died of dysentery at sea on HS Huntsend, on passage from Alexandra to England. On 4 May 1915, he had been admitted to Tignè Convalescent Hospital from HS Clan McGillivray with a thigh wound. Rejoined his unit 25 July.
10 Sep No 1100 Pte Ghest Robert Hubert aged 29 yrs 2 mths, 13th Bn AIF. Admitted to St Andrews Hospital Pembroke 28 August from HS Ascania with dysentery.
11 Sep Tpr Marlow George Stanley aged 20 yrs, 7th Otago Mounted Rifles NZEF.
12 Sep Lt Parker Smith Wilmot Babington aged 30 yrs, 1st/3rd Scottish Horse. Died at Floriana Military Hospital from wounds received at Suvla Bay, Gallipoli.
12 Sep Tpr Thirkell Graham Jeffery aged 27 yrs, City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders).
12 Sep L/Cpl Newson Thomas John aged 21 yrs, Wellington Regiment NZEF.
14 Sep No 496 Cpl Clements Joseph aged 24 yrs 8 mths, D Sqn 6th Light Horse AIF. Wounded ANZAC Cove. Admitted to Tignè Hospital 28 August from HS Maheno with GSW skull and compound tibial fracture.
17 Sep Gnr Hendle Ernest Alfred aged 26 yrs, Field Artillery NZEF.
17 Sep Pte Arnold Ronald aged 30 yrs, 12th Nelson Coy Canterbury Regiment NZEF.
18 Sep No 1606 Pte Lawson Oscar aged 28 yrs, 1st Rfts 18th Bn AIF. Admitted 8 September St Elmo Hospital Valletta from Hired Transport Nile with GSW to chest and buttock. Died of septicaemia.
19 Sep No 847 Bugler Christensen Jacob aged 21 yrs, D Coy 24th Bn 6th Inf Bde AIF. Landed Malta from HS Gascon with GSW leg and ankle and head injury. Died 18 September from shock following amputation.
22 Sep No 1585 Pte White David James aged 20 yrs 2 mths, 1st Rfts 20th Bn AIF. Admitted to St George's Hospital 10 Sep from HS Neuralia with enteric. Transferred to St Andrews Hospital Pembroke 18 Sep and died of dysentery 22 September.
23 Sep No 2537 Pte Walker John aged 30 yrs 7 mths, 7th Rfts 16th Bn AIF. Admitted to St Andrews Hospital Pembroke 9 Sep from Hired Transport Nile with dysentery.
Col Charles A Ballance MVO MS (Lond) FRCS – Surgeon St Thomas' Hospital
Col Archibald Edward Garrod –Physician St Bartholomew's Hospital. From 1915 till 1919, he acted as Consulting Physician to the Forces in Malta with the rank of Colonel in the Army Medical Service. He was awarded an MD (Honoris Causa) by the University of Malta.
Col Gulland G Lovell – Physician Edinburgh Royal Infirmary. Consulting physician to the Forces in Malta from 1916.
Col Purves Stewart – Physician Westminster hospital, the West-End Hospital for Nervous Diseases and the Royal Orthopaedic Hospital.
Col Charters James Symonds MS (Lond) FRCS – Consulting Surgeon Guy's Hospital.
Col William Thorburn Surgeon Manchester Royal Infirmary. Consultant Surgeon Malta and Salonica Commands.
Temp Commission RAMC Officers
Capt Anastasi J MBE RAMC – Stationed at Tigné Hospital
Alexander William Alister
Anderson James Robertson – Surgeon Malta 1916-19
Temp Lt Col Barker Arthur E. – Consultant Surgeon to the QA Military Hospital Millbank died at Salonica of pneumonia and nephritis
Batteson Victor Jenner
Chapman Edward Seymour
Clarke Henry Milford – Surgeon Specialist
Clow David – married Dr Alice Sanderson attached to RAMC whom he met at Malta
Crofton W M
Major Duff Donald – Surgical Specialist and consultant surgeon to the Malta Command
Capt Dickin Edward Percival – Officer in charge of the medical division of a military general hospital
Fannin Edward M
Farrar Reginald Anstruther – Major. Specialist Sanitary Officer Malta 1915-16, until the work greatly increased and was taken over by the permanent service. He then returned to England.
Finny Charles Morgan
Fothergill, Claude Francis, BA, MB, B C Cantab, MRC S, LRCP (Lond), Imtarfa Hospital, Malta. In 1913, he was elected a member of the Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland.
Glover James Alison – Assistant Sanitary Officer Malta Command 1915-16
Hall Edward Wilson
Harrison Cyril Edward
Heekes John William
Hill John McAdam
Major Hillman George Brown – Officer in charge of the Spinola General Hospital and the Hamrun Hospital for officers.
Hodgson Albert Ernest
Huggins Godfrey Martin – Surgeon Valletta Hospital
Hughes Ernest William Shaw – At Malta and on a hospital ship on the Salonica front.
Hughes Norman Alexander Aylmer
Kinnersly George Edward
Mackenzie Thomas – Officer commanding Cottonera Military Hospital.
Mackinnon Frank Irvine
Martin James Sackville – In 1916 married Miss Florence A. Gladstone at Valletta.
Capt Martin Edwin William – Served at Malta and Gallipoli and was present at the evacuation of Suvla Bay.
Mathews Frank Edward
Mayo Thomas Alfred
Mitchell James Murray Duff
Morgan William Pringle
Major O'Sullivan Alexander Charles – His work in Malta on malaria and dysentery obtained widespread recognition.
Patrick Adam – Specialist in Bacteriologist in Malta for 3 yrs
Temp Capt Phelps John Henry Dixon – Valletta Hospital
Pinchin Arthur John Scott – Physician Mtarfa Military Hospital.
Price G Basil – Physician Mtarfa Military Hospital.
Rendle Arthur Russel
Robertson James R
Russell Bertie Ronald Gordon
Shirley Herbert John
Sieger Albert Sophron
Capt Smyth Henry Carson – Served in Malta and Salonica, where he met and married Dr Janice Park Walton.
Studdert Augustine Fitzgerald
Sturridge Frederick Reginald
Thornton George Lestock
Walker William McNeill
Weeks Courtenay Charles
Wemyss Herbert Lindesay Watson
Drew R: Commissioned Officers in the Medical Services of the British Army Vol II. Roll of Officers in the Royal Army Medical Corps 1898–1960. London The Wellcome Historical Medical Library 1968.