Lady Doctors
Of the Malta Garrison
Margaret Ann
Hendry Stewart
1890 –1981

56 Margaret Ann Hendry Stewart

MB ChB (Glas 1916)

6 Oct 1890 – 4 Nov 1981

In May 1916, Dr Louisa Aldrich-Blake, Surgeon at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital and Dean of the London School of Medicine for Women, approached all the women on the Medical Register asking them to say if they would be willing to serve with the Royal Army Medical Corps. From the replies received, 48 lady doctors were enrolled. The first 22 medical women embarked for Malta on 2 August 1916; another 16 lady doctors embarked on the Hospital Ship (H.S.) Gloucester Castle on 12 August 1916.

The Director General Army Medical Services, Sir Alfred Keogh, was responsible for employing medical women and for dealing with illnesses among them. Women doctors, also referred to as lady doctors, were classed as civilian surgeons attached to the RAMC. Women serving as full time doctors in the Army and doing precisely the same work as their male colleagues had neither military rank nor status, but received the same pay, rations, travelling allowances and gratuity as temporary commissioned male officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps. A uniform was not introduced until after April 1918. This was similar in appearance to that worn by the Queen Mary's Auxiliary Army Corps (QMAAC) but with an RAMC badge on both lapels.

In October 1916, on hearing from the War Office that fifty more medical women were needed for service with the RAMC in English hospitals, Aldrich-Blake again negotiated with all the women who had qualified in the preceding ten years, and secured the requisite number in a very short time. On 20 October 1916, eleven medical women embarked on H.S. Britannic for Malta.

The casualties from operations in Gallipoli (25 April 1915 – 9 January 1916), and Salonica (October 1915 – 30 September 1918), were initially treated in Malta and Egypt, but in 1917, submarine attacks on hospital ships made it unsafe to evacuate from Salonica and five General Hospitals, Nos 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65, mobilized in Malta for service in Salonica to which the medical women were attached.

Between August 1916 and July 1917, eighty two lady doctors served in war hospitals in Malta. They worked alongside their RAMC colleagues and carried out all but administrative duties. Their assistance was very highly appreciated. Their work was recognized in the King's Birthday Honours list of June 1918 when Dr Barbara Martin Cunningham MB ChB, Military Hospital Mtarfa, Mrs Katharine Rosebery Drinkwater MB BS, in charge of Military Families Staff and Department Malta and Miss May Thorne MD, in charge of Sisters' Hospital and Staff Department Malta, were awarded the Order of the British Empire for services rendered during the war.

Service Record

Dr Stewart
Dr E M Edwards, Dr M A H Stewart, Dr M G Ormiston at Spinola Hospital. (Photo courtesy Dr M A H Stewart collection - supplied by her grandchildren.)
Dr Stewart
Dr M A H Stewart, Miss Christian Mitchell Croil VAD, Dr E M Edwards. (Photo courtesy Dr M A H Stewart's collection - supplied by her grandchildren.)
64 GH Salonica
Aerial view 64 GH Salonica
(Cotter collection AMS archives)

Dr Margaret Ann Hendry Stewart studied medicine at the University of Glasgow and graduated MB ChB in 1916. She held the appointment of Resident Physician and Surgeon Kilmarnock Infirmary. The Medical Directory of 1923 lists her address as Glencottar, Keith, Banffshire. The 1910 records of the Institute of Civil Engineers show that William Hendry Burgess Stewart, a student attached to the Institution of Civil Engineers, had also lived at this address.

Sept 1916 Dr M. A. H. Stewart was contracted to work for 12 months as a Civilian Surgeon attached to the RAMC. Her salary was 24 shillings a day, including allowances, but excluding duty transport. A gratuity of £60 was awarded at the end of the contract, provided employment had not been terminated for misconduct. Most of the medical women were invited to renew their contracts at the expiry of their first year's work.

10 Sep 1916 Embarked for Malta on the Hospital Ship Essequibo as part of the Women's Medical Unit RAMC.

30 Jan 1917 Attended the funeral of Dr Isobel Addy Tate.

Malta June 1917 Dr M. A. H. Stewart was one of eight women doctors attached to No 64 General Hospital, which was formed in Malta on 28 April 1917 from the staff of Spinola Camp Hospital. The women doctors on the staff were:

The hospital staff, consisting of 10 officers and 250 other ranks, marched to All Saints Convalescent Camp to await their passage. On 3 June 1917, Lt Col T. E. Fielding DSO RAMC o/c 64 GH, Captain Oscar M. De Jong, Capt M. Douglas, Capt R. A. P. Hill, Capt H. G. R. Jamieson, Lt T. M. Thomson and Lt (QM) J. Cotter with 206 soldiers embarked on HMT Abbassieh. The remaining medical officers, women doctors, female nursing staff, and all the equipment, were left in Malta due to lack of space on the transport.

The men arrived at Suda Bay, Crete on 6 June and at Salonica on 9 June 1917. Lt (QM) James Cotter and all personnel marched to the site of the camp which was to be occupied by No 63 General Hospital, at Kilo 9 Seres Road. The remaining officers reported to No 1 Base Depot Summerhill. Their hospital equipment did not reach Salonica until 12 July, when a quantity of medical and ordnance stores was found to be missing. On 19 June, Captains A. M. Cato, A. Cowes, A. Dennison, H. M. Green and W. D. Cruickshank joined the hospital.

18 Jun 1917 – 28 Oct 1917 On duty at Salonica. No 64 General Hospital was set up at Akbunar hills, north of Salonica. It was equipped with 10 beds for officers and 250 beds for the Other Ranks. It became operational on 21 July 1917. The women doctors, who had been accommodated on H.S. Llandovery Castle, since their disembarkation at Salonica, reported for duty at 64 GH on 2 July.

1 Oct 1917 The nominal roll of the staff of 64 GH (excluding women doctors) was:

20 Oct 1917 Doctor M. A. H. Stewart, whose contract had expired on 10 September, and Doctor Violet Mabel Deale, whose contract had expired on 24 September, received their long delayed orders for home. They were given an early morning send off on 20 October by their colleagues of No 64 General Hospital.

28 Oct 1917 On duty at Aldershot Command.

4 May 1918 – 5 June 1919 Served in Egypt.

5 June 1919 Returned to England from Egypt; demobilised on 8 June.

Dr Margaret Ann Hendry Stewart married Dr Hector Calder. One of her daughters graduated MB ChB from the University of Glasgow in 1949 and emigrated to Canada in 1951.

4 Nov 1981 Dr M. A. H. Stewart died at the age of 91 years and was buried at Gartmore Cemetery Gartmore.